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samedi 8 novembre 2008


GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS:Information Research Center (IRC)
Embassy of the United States of America


Management Improvements Needed on the Department of Homeland Security’s Next Generation Information Sharing System
Government Accountability Office (GAO). Report to Congressional Committees. October 2008. 58 pages.
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is responsible for coordinating the federal government's homeland security communications with all levels of government. In support of this mission, DHS implemented, and has been enhancing, the Homeland Security Information Network (HSIN). It also has proposed a follow-on system, called Next Generation HSIN (HSIN Next Gen). GAO was asked to determine whether DHS has stopped further improvements on HSIN and if so, the department's rationale for doing so and plans for acquiring its proposed follow-on system HSIN Next Gen, and whether the department is effectively managing the HSIN Next Gen acquisition.

Information on the Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program and Consumer Participation in the Program
Mark L. Goldstein, Director, Physical Infrastructure. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Testimony before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. September 23, 2008. 16 pages.

DIGITAL TELEVISION TRANSITION: Information on the Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program and Consumer Participation in the Program
Mark L. Goldstein, Director, Physical Infrastructure. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Testimony before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives. September 16, 2008. 16 pages.

DIGITAL TELEVISION TRANSITION: Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program Is Under Way, but Preparedness to Manage an Increase in Subsidy Demand Is Unclear
Government Accountability Office (GAO). Report to Congressional Requesters. September 2008. 46 pages.
The Digital Television Transition and Public Safety Act of 2005 requires all full-power television stations in the United States to cease analog broadcasting after February 17, 2009, known as the digital television (DTV) transition. The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is responsible for implementing a subsidy program to provide households with up to two $40 coupons toward the purchase of converter boxes. In this requested report, GAO examines what consumer education efforts have been undertaken by private and federal stakeholders and how effective NTIA has been in implementing the converter box subsidy program, and to what extent consumers are participating in the program.

John B. Stephenson, Director, Natural Resources and Environment. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Testimony before the Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific, and the Global Environment, Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives. September 17, 2008. 21 pages.

ELECTRONIC WASTE: EPA Needs to Better Control Harmful U.S. Exports through Stronger Enforcement and More Comprehensive Regulation
Government Accountability Office (GAO). Report to the Chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives. August 2008. 67 pages.
Increasingly, U.S. consumers are recycling their old electronics to prevent the environmental harm that can come from disposal. Concerns have grown, however, that some U.S. companies are exporting these items to developing countries, where unsafe recycling practices can cause health and environmental problems. Items with cathode-ray tubes (CRT) are particularly harmful because they can contain 4 pounds of lead, a known toxin. To prevent this practice, since January 2007, EPA began regulating the export of CRTs under its CRT rule, which requires companies to notify EPA before exporting CRTs. In this context, GAO examined the fate of exported used electronics, the effectiveness of regulatory controls over the export of these devices, and options to strengthen federal regulation of exported used electronics.

DHS Needs to Better Address Its Cybersecurity Responsibilities
Government Accountability Office (GAO). Testimony before the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats, Cybersecurity, and Science and Technology, Committee on Homeland Security, U.S. House of Representatives. September 16, 2008. 19 pages.
Recent cyber attacks demonstrate the potentially devastating impact these pose to the U.S. computer systems and to the federal operations and critical infrastructures that they support. They also highlight that the United States need to be vigilant against individuals and groups with malicious intent, such as criminals, terrorists, and nation-states perpetuating these attacks. Federal law and policy established the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as the focal point for coordinating cybersecurity, including making it responsible for protecting systems that support critical infrastructures, a practice commonly referred to as cyber critical infrastructure protection. Since 2005, GAO has reported on the responsibilities and progress DHS has made in its cybersecurity efforts. GAO was asked to summarize its key reports and their associated recommendations aimed at securing the U.S. cyber critical infrastructure.

Actions Needed to Better Protect Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Unclassified Computer Network
Government Accountability Office (GAO). Report to Congressional Committees. September 2008. 49 pages.
The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is operated by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), has experienced security lapses protecting information on its unclassified computer network. The unclassified network contains sensitive information. GAO assessed the effectiveness of the security controls LANL has in place to protect information transmitted over its unclassified computer network, assessed whether LANL had implemented an information security program for its unclassified network, and examined expenditures to protect LANL's unclassified network from fiscal years 2001 through 2007.

Trends in Telephone Service
Industry Analysis and Technology Division. Wireline Competition Bureau. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). August 2008. 178 pages.
This report presents information about the size, growth, and development of the telephone industry, including data on market shares, minutes of calling, number of lines, and telephone subscribership. It also provides information about access charges, telephone rates and price changes, consumer expenditures for service, employment, infrastructure, international telephone traffic, local competition, long distance carriers, residential telephone usage, and universal service support.

CYBER ANALYSIS AND WARNING: DHS Faces Challenges in Establishing a Comprehensive National Capability
Government Accountability Office (GAO). Report to the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats, Cybersecurity, and Science and Technology, Committee on Homeland Security, U.S. House of Representatives. July 2008. 67 pages.
Cyber analysis and warning capabilities are critical to thwarting computer-based (cyber) threats and attacks. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) established the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) to, among other things, coordinate the nation's efforts to prepare for, prevent, and respond to cyber threats to systems and communications networks. GAO's objectives were to identify key attributes of cyber analysis and warning capabilities, compare these attributes with US-CERT's current capabilities to identify whether there are gaps, and identify US-CERT's challenges to developing and implementing key attributes and a successful national cyber analysis and warning capability.

Roundtable Discussion on Phishing Education
Division of Consumer and Business Education and Division of Marketing Practices. Federal Trade Commission (FTC). July 2008. 15 pages.
Phishing uses deceptive spam that appears to be coming from legitimate, well-known sources to trick consumers into divulging sensitive or personal information, such as credit card numbers, other financial data, or passwords, either through a reply email or a link to a copycat of the purported source’s website. During the July 2007 Spam Summit of the Federal Trade Commission, panelists identified consumer and business education as a key tool for helping to reduce the number of consumers who fall victim to phishing scams.


The opinions expressed in these publications do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Government

Networked Families
The Pew Internet & American Life Project. October 19, 2008. 44 pages.
The Internet and cell phones have become central components of modern family life. Among all household types, the traditional nuclear family has the highest rate of technology usage and ownership. Households with a married couple and minor children are more likely than other household types -- such as single adults, homes with unrelated adults, or couples without children -- to have cell phones and use the Internet. Cell phones allow family members to stay more regularly in touch even when they are not physically together. Moreover, many members of married-with-children households view material online together.

A Comparison of the Technology Policies of Barack Obama and John McCain
Arlene Holen. Technology Policy Institute. Policy Perspective. October 8, 2008. 4 pages.
This comparison is drawn from and adheres closely to statements on the presidential candidates’ websites. Both websites list technology among the issues most important to their campaigns. The comparison summarizes the candidates’ views on key issues and highlights important similarities and differences. Both candidates share the goals of strengthening American science, technology and innovation; developing a skilled workforce; enhancing intellectual property protection; and encouraging a modern communications infrastructure. Some of their policy approaches are quite different however. For example, they differ sharply in emphasizing increased federal spending vs. tax incentives to achieve policy goals and in their positions on network neutrality.
Comparing the Candidates’ Technology and Innovation Policies
Stephen J. Ezell and Robert D. Atkinson. Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF). September 29, 2008. 19 pages.
Innovation drives long-term national economic growth and has in fact been responsible for 80 percent of the growth in the U.S. economy since World War II. This places technology and innovation squarely at the center of the issue -- the economy -- that voters have identified as the most important in the 2008 Presidential election. Both John McCain and Barack Obama’s campaigns increasingly recognize the central role that science, technology, and innovation play in economic growth and have developed specific policy positions on these issues. This ITIF policy brief compares and assesses the candidates’ technology and innovation policies across a number of specific issues areas, including: taxes, R&D funding, broadband and net neutrality, e-government, digital transformation, education and workforce development, trade, patent and intellectual property, and energy and the environment.

The Pew Center on the States. October 2008. 36 pages.
Many of those going to the polls on November 4 will be first-time voters who will need to know how to register to vote, where to vote and, likely, who and what are on the ballots for the 2008 elections. Today’s technology should make it easier for these first-time voters. While it is clear that the Internet helps people search for and use information, it is not clear, however, that voters will in fact find the information they are looking for or that the information they do find will help them vote in the coming elections.

Digital Quality of Life: Understanding the Personal and Social Benefits of the Information Technology Revolution
Robert D. Atkinson and Daniel D. Castro. Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF). October 2008. 185 pages.
In the new global economy, information technology (IT) is the major driver of both economic growth and improved quality of life. In its 2007 report, the ITIF documented how IT, since the mid-1990s, has been the principal driver of increased economic growth not only in the United States but also in many other nations. IT is also at the core of dramatic improvements in the quality of life for individuals around the world. In this new report, the authors show how IT is the key enabler of many, if not most, of today’s key innovations and improvements in our lives and society -- from better education and health care, to a cleaner and more energy-efficient environment, to safer and more secure communities and nations.

Do High Call Termination Rates Deter Broadband Deployment?
T. Randolph Beard and George S. Ford. Phoenix Center for Advanced Legal and Economic Public Policy Studies. Policy Bulletin No. 22. October 2008. 9 pages.
Does the current way by which providers compensate each other for the exchange of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), wireless, local and long-distance calls inhibit broadband deployment? The question is timely, as the Federal Communications Commission is presently considering a comprehensive intercarrier compensation reform proposal that would establish lower and more uniform rates for the transport and termination of all forms of traffic, regardless of point-of-origin and technology.

The Lobby that Cried Wolf
Benjamin Lennett. New America Foundation. Wireless Future Program. Issue Brief #23. October 2008. 14 pages.
In an October 2007 letter to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), executives from the four largest TV networks told the Commission that proposals to allow low-power Wi-Fi type devices to operate on vacant TV channels, “could cause permanent damage to over-the-air digital television reception." Such a dire warning would ring alarm bells for policymakers, if not for the fact that similar nightmare scenarios have been predicted before. In numerous public relations and lobbying campaigns, broadcasters and their respective lobbies have relied upon similar doomsday pronouncements to inhibit competition and maintain their exclusive control over the valuable, but grossly under-utilized, broadcast spectrum.

Net Neutrality Regulation in the United States
Barbara S. Esbin. The Progress and Freedom Foundation (PFF). Progress Snapshot Release 4.21. October 2008. 3 pages.
The United States moved closer to “Net Neutrality” regulation this year when the Federal Communications Commission found that Comcast, a cable broadband Internet service provider, violated a set of Internet policy principles the FCC adopted in 2005 by limiting peer-to-peer (P2P) traffic. The ruling was the culmination of a ten-year effort that began as a call for wholesale “open access” to the cable platform for third-party Internet service providers.

Networked Workers
The Pew Internet & American Life Project. September 24, 2008. 57 pages.
The majority of employed adults (62%) use the Internet or email at their job, and many have cell phones and Blackberries that keep them connected even when they are not at work. Working Americans express mixed views about the impact of technology on their work lives. On the one hand, they cite the benefits of increased connectivity and flexibility that the Internet and all of their various gadgets afford them at work. On the other hand, many workers say these tools have added stress and new demands to their lives.

Teens, Video Games and Civics
The Pew Internet & American Life Project. September 16, 2008. 76 pages.
The first national survey of its kind finds that virtually all American teens play computer, console, or cell phone games and that the gaming experience is rich and varied, with a significant amount of social interaction and potential for civic engagement. Game playing, however, sometimes involves exposure to mature content, with almost a third of teens playing games that are listed as appropriate only for people older than they are.

The DTV Coupon Program: A Boon to Retailers, not Consumers
Scott Wallsten. Technology Policy Institute. Policy Perspective. September 15, 2008. 4 pages.
In principle, the DTV coupon program reduces the cost to households of the digital transition by allowing them to spend $40 less on a converter box than they otherwise would. This analysis reveals, however, that coupon program has created a floor on the price of these converter boxes. Because consumers pay $0 with the coupon for any box priced $40 or less, retailers have little incentive to reduce the price below $40. An analysis of converter box prices at retailers around the country suggests that the coupon program has increased the price of converter boxes by $21-34.

John B. Horrigan. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. Data Memo. September 12, 2008. 9 pages.
Some 69% of online Americans use webmail services, store data online, or use software programs such as word processing applications whose functionality is located on the web. In doing so, these users are making use of “cloud computing,” an emerging architecture by which data and applications reside in cyberspace, allowing users to access them through any web-connected device.

Cybersecurity Economic Issues: Corporate Approaches and Challenges to Decisionmaking
Rand Corporation. Research Brief. September 2008. 5 pages.
This research brief presents findings that address key cybersecurity concerns, perceptions of the importance of cybersecurity, and considerations for cybersecurity investment decisions. In particular, it suggests that companies, the government, and other organizations can help improve our understanding of cybersecurity economics by monitoring cybersecurity incidents and responses, soliciting and using standard terminology and measures, and sharing data whenever possible.

Time for a Post-Partisan Broadband Debate
Robert D. Atkinson. Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF). September 2008. 4 pages.
In the last few years, the debate over broadband policy has become increasingly partisan and bitter. In this Report, the author argues that it is time to move beyond the partisan bickering. By reviewing the merits and shortcomings of each side’s position, the author draws a blueprint for pragmatic broadband progress in the areas of the U.S. broadband position, net neutrality, the role of competition and overall broadband policy.

Michael Calabrese and Gregory Rose. New America Foundation. Wireless Future Program. Working Paper #22. September 2008. 31 pages.
A one-time auction of the guard band and other vacant channels in each local television market -- so-called "spectrum white space" -- would provide minimal revenue to the Treasury, while simultaneously ensuring that most of this unused "beachfront" spectrum will remain fallow, stifling the broadband services and innovation that could generate far more long-term economic activity. Alternatively, opening unlicensed access to the DTV white space for use by all American homes and businesses would do far more to promote opportunities for broadband deployment, innovation and efficient utilization of this spectrum.

Podcast Downloading 2008
Mary Madden and Sydney Jones. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. Data Memo. August 28, 2008. 5 pages.
As gadgets with digital audio capability proliferate, podcast downloading continues to increase. Currently, 19% of all Internet users say they have downloaded a podcast so they could listen to it or view it later. This most recent percentage is up from 12% of Internet users who reported downloading podcasts in an August 2006 survey and 7% in a February-April 2006 survey. Still, podcasting has yet to become a fixture in the everyday lives of Internet users, as very few Internet users download podcasts on a typical day.

Whither the internet?
The Pew Internet & American Life Project. August 27, 2008. 6 pages.
Last November, hundreds of government, industry leaders and Internet activists from around the world gathered in Rio de Janeiro for the second Internet Governance Forum. A survey conducted at the forum shows attendees want an online Bill of Rights and more competition among service providers

The Engaged E-patient Population
Susannah Fox. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. August 26, 2008. 4 pages.
The Pew Internet Project estimates that between 75% and 80% of Internet users have looked online for health information. Information gathering has become a habit for many Americans, particularly those in the 55% of households with broadband connections. For example, 78% of home broadband users look online for health information, compared with 70% of home dial-up users. Home broadband users are twice as likely as home dial-up users to do health research on a typical day -- 12% vs. 6%.

The Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. August 17, 2008. 129 pages.
For more than a decade, the audiences for most traditional news sources have steadily declined, as the number of people getting news online has surged. Today, however, a sizable minority of Americans find themselves at the intersection of these two long-standing trends in news consumption. Integrators, who get the news from both traditional sources and the Internet, are a more engaged, sophisticated and demographically sought-after audience segment than those who mostly rely on traditional news sources. Integrators share some characteristics with a smaller, younger, more Internet savvy audience segment, Net-Newsers, who principally turn to the web for news, and largely eschew traditional sources.

Search Engine Use
Deborah Fallows. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. Data Memo. August 6, 2008. 6 pages.
The percentage of Internet users who use search engines on a typical day has been steadily rising from about one-third of all users in 2002, to a new high of just under one-half (49%). With this increase, the number of those using a search engine on a typical day is pulling ever closer to the 60% of Internet users who use email.

State and Federal Electronic Government in the United States, 2008
Darrell M. West. Governance Studies. The Brookings Institution. August 2008. 19 pages.
This report assesses the nature of American state and federal electronic government in 2008 by examining whether e-government effectively capitalizes on the interactive features available on the World Wide Web to improve service delivery and public outreach. Although considerable progress has been made over the past decade, e-government has fallen short of its potential to transform public-sector operations. This report closes by suggesting how public officials can take maximum advantage of technology to improve government performance.

Improving Technology Utilization in Electronic Government around the World, 2008
Darrell M. West. Governance Studies. The Brookings Institution. August 2008. 32 pages.
Despite the great promise of technological advancement, public sector innovation has tended to be small-scale and gradual. Factors such as institutional arrangements, budget scarcity, group conflict, cultural norms and prevailing patterns of social and political behavior have restricted government actions. Because governments are divided into competing agencies and jurisdictions, policymakers struggle to get bureaucrats to work together in promoting technological innovation. Budget considerations prevent government offices from placing services online and using technology for democratic outreach. Cultural norms and patterns of individual behavior affect the manner in which technology is used by citizens and policymakers.

Previous issues of Information Technologies -- Documents on the Web are available at:

Voir aussi: Index de l'Internet

samedi 20 septembre 2008


1-Longtemps, on s'est couché de bonne heure. Les hommes passaient leur journée dans les bois, à la recherche de gibiers et de fruits. Monopolisant le temps disponible, l'économie était cependant une pratique simple et modeste, se limitant à fournir ce dont les hommes avaient besoin pour se nourrir, s'abriter, se chauffer, honorer leurs femmes puis leurs dieux .

Le risque économique provenait de la nature (climat, épidémies, animaux féroces...). Mais déjà aussi des autres hommes, nomades de la terre ou de la mer. Et cela d'autant plus que les progrès de l'économie sédentaire favorisaient la multiplication et la survie des hommes, donc les cibles pour les prédateurs de ressources, de territoires, de femmes et de vies humaines.

  1. 3000 ans avant J.C, dans le Croissant fertile du Moyen Orient, l'agriculture irriguée, l'élevage , le stockage permettaient la création des grandes cités, des états policés, des empires. On n'était plus dans la survie du Neanderthal; on entrait dans l'Age des civilisations organisées où l'économie jouait un rôle important mais non exclusif à côté de la politique , du droit, de la guerre et de la religion .

  1. Cependant les techniques économiques n'ont cessé de progresser en efficacité et dans leur maîtrise du temps et de l'espace.

  • Dans la production agricole. Avec les défrichements médiévaux, la découverte des plantes américaines et l'assolement, l'assolement, l'apport massif d' amendements et engrais venus d'usines lointaines, la colonisation des grandes steppes continentales par le brûlis, le dry farming, les convois d'immigrants, l'enclos de barbelés. Puis l'agriculture scientifique hyperproductive.....
  • Dans l'industrie, la maitrise de la mine et des métaux , puis de l'énergie, la création de matériaux nouveaux avec la chimie,la mécanisation, le travail organisé à flux tendus et à distance, de plus en plus loin des consommateurs.

  • Le commerce aussi élargit l'espace et la durée des activités économiques.A l'origine, simple troc de proximité, il devient continental (grandes foires du Moyen Age) et intercontinental (route de la soie, commerce des épices, commerce triangulaire de l'Atlantique...)
  1. Tout ceci est allé de pair avec une organisation des sociétés liée au progrès économique

  • La production économique appelait une organisation de la propriété des territoires et des biens . Et surtout du travail humain : esclavage, servage, statut de l'artisan, contrat et droit du travail, travail programmé dans les manufactures et les mines, assistance sociale à la reproduction de la force de travail..

  • Le crédit, puis la société de capitaux, donnent du temps et de la confiance pour entreprendre des tâches de longue haleine (dénouement des cycles commerciaux longs , grands travaux, fabrications de masse...) . Dès la fin du moyen Age, les banquiers jouent un rôle croissant, certes pour financer l'économie, mais aussi les dépenses publiques bien plus rentables de l'accès au pouvoir (ex: les candidatures aux élections impériales) , l'ostentation et la guerre des Princes.
  • La monnaie et la comptabilité représentent, par l'abstraction, des valeurs économiques, ce qui facilite les les combinaisons hâtives ou douteuses.

  1. C'est aussi le début d'une indépendance croissante de la finance par rapport à l'économie réelle des biens et services

  • La banque, la finance hors banque (la Bourse par exemple) et la monnaie ont en commun de ne pas représenter directement des valeurs concrètes mais des notions assez subjectives comme la confiance, la valorisation du temps et celle des risques .

  • Il s'y ajoute l'extrême facilité pour créer et distribuer des ressources de paiement qui viennent en concurrence avec celles qui proviennent de l'économie proprement dit , c'est à dire la rémunération du bien ou service fourni à autrui.

  • Or ce n'est pas l'activité économique proprement dite qui crée la valeur, mais la quantité d'argent, que l'on peut attribuer à un produit . Et cela quelle que soit l'origine de cet argent: salaire, transfert social en provenance de l'Etat-providence, vol, spéculation boursière. cession d'actif, crédit, création monétaire...

  • Pour compliquer le tout, la financiarisation a puissamment déplacé les méthodes et les enjeux de l'économie.

Comment? La financiarisation a commencé depuis longtemps avec le crédit, l'endossement et la négociation des effets de commerce, la multiplication des monnaies métalliques en provenance d'Amérique, les monnaies de compte , la création des banques centrales régulatrices et l'abandon de l'or comme moyen de paiement en 1976.

Dans les vingt dernières années la déréglementation , l'internationalisation des mouvements de capitaux, l'apparition des produits dérivés et des marchés de risques, l'intervention d'opérateurs non bancaires ont considérablement accru la circulation financière indépendamment de tout objectif économique classique (produire pour satisfaire un besoin)..

Aujourd'hui les actifs financiers représentent quatre fois le PIB mondial, les échanges de devises représentent environ 500 fois les flux commerciaux réels de biens et services. C'est beaucoup plus que l'huile de rouage nécessaire pour l'économie réelle.

Tout ceci a désarmé les opérateurs et régulateurs traditionnels de la finance (banques commerciales, banques centrales, états). Les grands organismes internationaux de type FMI-Banque Mondiale sont eux aussi très loin de faire le poids devant un marché aussi puissant qui définit de fait les critères de décision (au profit de qui?) les rendements exigés du capital et qui s'autorise bien des bulles spéculatives et des crises.

Où est, dans tout cela l'économie de grand papa, où Ford gagnait sa vie en proposant des automobiles que pouvaient acheter ses ouvriers? où les institutions publiques définissaient les règles acceptables de la compétition pour les richesses?

Rome n'est plus dans Rome et l'économie réelle a sombré dans la finance virtuelle. Tout ceci évolue très vite et se trouve hors de portée des décideurs privés ou publics les plus légitimes..

  • La monnaie, symbôle d'une richesse concrète, est vite devenue une source autonome de revenus donc de richesses.

Les Monarques, maîtres des horloges chargés des régulations, n'ont pas hésité à rogner sur la quantité de métal précieux inclus dans la monnaie. Ils ont ainsi inventé l'inflation qui, avec les impôts, les emprunts plus ou moins obligatoires et mal remboursés et la création de monnaie-papier (assignats), ont financé les grandes faillites de la Cour (Louis XVI?) et surtout les guerres puis les indispensables démagogies.

6- L'extraordinaire instinct de survie de l'homme du Neanderthal le conduisait à privilégier par nécessité une économie très concrète. Comme chez les truites d'élevage incapables de survivre dans la nature sans croquettes, cet instinct est aujourd'hui très dégradé, au mieux dans l'amélioration du pouvoir d'achat, au pire en caprice d'acquisition du dernier gadget à la mode...Le vouloir d'achat prend le pas sur le pouvoir d'achat et même sur les besoins réeels.

A côté de cela s'est développé, du moins chez les "élites" le puissant instinct du pouvoir politique ou idéologique, qui porte à son actif la formation et le fonctionnement des grands ensembles territoriaux et des communautés religieuses ou culturelles, mais aussi la quasi-totalité des grandes guerres et des dépenses somptuaires ou démagogiques. Il est lui aussi souvent dégradé en volonté de prestige ou revendication d'identité.

Dans un cas comme dans l'autre , aspiration économique ou ambition politique, la tentation était grande de transformer en absolu une activité subordonnée. En créant des règles (lois, institutions, organisations...) et même des postulats philosophiques. Ceux de la pensée politique sont bien connus, autour de la Nation, du Roi, du peuple souverain etc...

Ceux de la pensée économique ont été plus longs à se manifester comme des absolus, mais c'est le cas depuis deux siècles au moins: évangiles selon Saint Marx et Saint Adam Smith, homo economicus, anticipations rationnelles, concurrence, paradigme des marchés autorégulés, marchés incontestés...).

Il s'agit d'une sorte de religion, ou du moins de pensée unique, qui propose ses méthodes et ses objectifs à la vie concrète dans l'économie mais aussi dans l'organisation du politique, du social et même de la vie individuelle (socioeconomie)

Les détenteurs de savoirs techniques (ingénieurs, biologistes, guerriers, prédicateurs) sont rarement modestes . Ils extrapolent leurs savoirs jusqu'à un absolu déraisonnable et on trouve toujours un Faust, un Docteur Mabuse ou Frankenstein, un Hitler pour exagérer sans humour jusqu'à l'absurde ou l'horreur.

Comme toute pulsion forte, la recherche du pouvoir ou simplement d'une satisfaction économique ou politique; exercée par un acteur assez puissant, peut susciter un changement destabilisant pour autrui, c'est à dire un risque.

Chose plus grave, les techniques d'influence économique (publicité, appel à la crédulité publique, création de valeur « out of nothing » ) et d'influence politique (propagande, menace, agression...) sont desormais largement vulgarisées entre des mains non innocentes: mafias, délinquants financiers, groupes terroristes,

Ouvrons notre journal. Croyances totalitaires, anticipations rationnelles et marchés auto-régulés, bulles et subprimes, énormité de la dette américaine, traders-fous, patrons-voyous, politiciens mégalomanes, médiatisations narcissiques, surconsommations chauffées à la publicité, pollutions, génie génétique, drogues et addictions médicamenteuses, nanotechnologies...

Nous avons longuement forgé des instruments prométhéens , économie, politique, science, communication qui nous échappent et nous menacent.

Le bonheur tranquille n'est plus ni dans les prés, ni dans les bois, ni encore moins dans la Cité radieuse promise par les politiciens.

So what?

mercredi 20 août 2008

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Voir aussi Bibliotheques et centres de documentation

Information sur Internet

jeudi 31 juillet 2008


National Do Not Call Registry: Annual Report to Congress for FY 2007 Pursuant to the Do-Not-Call Implementation Act on Implementation of the National Do Not Call Registry
Federal Trade Commission (FTC). July 2008. 20 pages.

The National Do Not Call Registry is, by virtually every available measure, an effective consumer protection initiative. By the end of FY 2007, there were more than 145 million telephone numbers on the National Registry. The available data show that compliance with the National Registry provisions of the Amended Telemarketing Sales Rule (“Amended TSR”) is high and that, as a result, consumers are receiving fewer unwanted telemarketing calls. The National Registry received over 19 million new registrations during FY 2007. Approximately 66,000 sellers, telemarketers, and exempt organizations accessed the National Registry during the fiscal year, with over 6,000 of those entities paying fees totaling more than $21.5 million. The FTC initiated three new cases alleging violations of the National Registry and resolved or added defendants to eight cases that were filed before FY 2007 but were still pending.

Privacy: Congress Should Consider Alternatives for Strengthening Protection of Personally Indentifiable Information
Linda Koontz. Director. Information Management Issues. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Testimony before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. June 18, 2008. 27 pages.

Concerns have been raised about the privacy and security of personal information in light of advances in information technology and the increasingly sophisticated ways in which the government obtains and uses information. Federal agencies' use of personal information is governed by the Privacy Act of 1974 and the E-Government Act of 2002, while the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provides implementation guidance and oversight. These laws and guidance are based on the Fair Information Practices, a set of widely accepted principles for protecting privacy. GAO was asked to testify on its report concerning the sufficiency of privacy protections afforded by existing laws and guidance.

DIGITAL TELEVISION TRANSITION: Broadcasters’ Transition Status, Low-Power Station Issues, and Information on Consumer Awareness of the DTV Transition
Mark L. Goldstein. Director. Physical Infrastructure Issues. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Testimony before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives. June 10, 2008. 23 pages.
This requested report examines the status of broadcast stations in transitioning to digital, the extent to which broadcast stations are encountering issues, and the actions the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has taken to guide broadcasters in the digital transition. Television broadcast stations have made substantial progress in transitioning to digital television, with the vast majority already transmitting a digital signal. Approximately 91 percent of the 1,122 full-power stations responding to this survey are currently transmitting a digital signal, with approximately 68 percent of survey respondents transmitting their digital signal at full strength and 68 percent transmitting their digital signal on the channel from which they will broadcast after the transition date. Some stations, however, still need to complete construction of their final digital facilities, and others need to relocate their digital channel to complete the transition.

Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs
Lennard G. Kruger and Angele A. Gilroy. Congressional Research Service (CRS). June 4, 2008. 38 pages.
Broadband technologies are currently being deployed primarily by the private sector throughout the United States. While the numbers of new broadband subscribers continue to grow, studies and data suggest that the rate of broadband deployment in urban and high income areas may be outpacing deployment in rural and low-income areas. Some policymakers, believing that disparities in broadband access across American society could have adverse economic and social consequences on those left behind, assert that the federal government should play a more active role to avoid a “digital divide” in broadband access. One approach is for the federal government to provide financial assistance to support broadband deployment in underserved areas. Others, however, believe that federal assistance for broadband deployment is not appropriate. Some opponents question the reality of the “digital divide,” and argue that federal intervention in the broadband marketplace would be premature and, in some cases, counterproductive.

Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues
Angele A. Gilroy and Lennard G. Kruger. Congressional Research Service (CRS). May 27, 2008. 23 pages.

Some areas of the nation -- particularly rural and low-income communities -- continue to lack full access to high-speed broadband Internet service. In order to address this problem, the 110th Congress is examining a wide range of issues including the scope and effect of federal broadband financial assistance programs (including universal service and the broadband programs at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Rural Utilities Service), and the impact of telecommunications regulation and new technologies on broadband deployment. One facet of the debate over broadband services focuses on whether present laws and subsequent regulatory policies are needed to ensure the development of competition and its subsequent consumer benefits, or conversely, whether such laws and regulations are overly burdensome and discourage investment in and deployment of broadband services.

Broadband Loan and Grant Programs in the USDA’s Rural Utilities Service
Lennard G. Kruger. Congressional Research Service (CRS). May 15, 2008. 35 pages.

Some key issues pertinent to a consideration of the Rural Utilities Service (RUS) at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) broadband programs include restrictions on applicant eligibility, how “rural” is defined with respect to eligible rural communities, how to address assistance to areas with preexisting broadband service, technological neutrality, funding levels and mechanisms, and the appropriateness of federal assistance. Ultimately, any modification of rules, regulations, or criteria associated with the RUS broadband program will likely result in “winners and losers” in terms of which companies, communities, regions of the country, and technologies are eligible or more likely to receive broadband loans and grants.

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program
: Funding Issues and Activities
Patricia Moloney Figliola. Congressional Research Service (CRS). May 15, 2008. 19 pages.

Proponents of federal support of information technology (IT) R&D assert that it has produced positive outcomes for the country and played a crucial role in supporting long-term research into fundamental aspects of computing. Government-funded IT research often leads to open standards, something that many perceive as beneficial, encouraging deployment and further investment. Industry, on the other hand, is more inclined to invest in proprietary products and will diverge from a common standard when there is a potential competitive or financial advantage to do so. Finally, proponents of government support believe that the outcomes achieved through the various funding programs create a synergistic environment in which both fundamental and application-driven research are conducted, benefitting government, industry, academia, and the public. Critics assert that the government, through its funding mechanisms, may be picking “winners and losers” in technological development, a role more properly residing with the private sector. For example, the size of the NITRD Program may encourage industry to follow the government’s lead on research directions rather than selecting those directions itself.

“Spam”: An Overview of Issues Concerning Commercial Electronic Mail
Patricia Moloney Figliola. Congressional Research Service (CRS). May 14, 2008. 21 pages.

Spam, also called unsolicited commercial email (UCE) or “junk email,” aggravates many computer users. Proponents of UCE insist it is a legitimate marketing technique that is protected by the First Amendment, and that some consumers want to receive such solicitations. On December 16, 2003, President Bush signed into law the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act, P.L. 108-187. It went into effect on January 1, 2004. The CAN-SPAM Act does not ban UCE. Rather, it allows marketers to send commercial email as long as it conforms with the law, such as including a legitimate opportunity for consumers to “opt-out” of receiving future commercial emails from that sender. Proponents of CAN-SPAM have argued that consumers are most irritated by fraudulent email, and that the law should reduce the volume of such email because of the civil and criminal penalties included therein. Opponents counter that consumers object to unsolicited commercial email, and since the law legitimizes commercial email (as long as it conforms with the law’s provisions), consumers actually may receive more, not fewer, UCE messages.

Broadband over Powerlines: Regulatory and Policy Issues
Patricia Moloney Figliola. Congressional Research Service (CRS). May 13, 2008. 21 pages.

Congress has expressed significant interest in increasing the availability of broadband services throughout the nation. Broadband over powerlines (BPL) has the potential to play a significant role in increasing the competitive landscape of the communications industry as well as extend the reach of broadband to a greater number of Americans. BPL, like any technology, has its advantages and disadvantages. Proponents state that BPL is less expensive to deploy than the cable and telephone companies’ broadband offerings; it does not require upgrades to the actual electric grid; and, it is not limited by some technical constraints of its competitors. However, critics are concerned that BPL interferes with licensed radio frequencies used for amateur radio, government, and emergency response.

Evidence on the Costs and Benefits of Health Information Technology

Peter R. Orszag. Director. Congressional Budget Office (CBO). CBO Paper. May 2008. 46 pages.

Health information technology (health IT) plays a key role in health care. Providers such as physicians and hospitals generate and process information as they provide care to patients. Managing that information and using it productively pose a continuing challenge, particularly in light of the complexity of the U.S. health care sector, with its many different types of providers, services, and settings for care. Health IT has the potential to significantly increase the efficiency of the health sector by helping providers manage information. It could also improve the quality of health care and, ultimately, the outcomes of that care for patients. In this paper, prepared at the request of the Chairman of the Senate Budget Committee, the Congressional Budget Office examines the evidence on the costs and benefits of health IT, possible barriers to a broader distribution and use of it in hospitals and clinicians’ offices, and possible options for the federal government to promote use of health IT.

DIGITAL TELEVISION TRANSITION: Majority of Broadcasters Are Prepared for the DTV Transition, but Some Technical and Coordination Issues Remain
Government Accountability Office (GAO). Report to Congressional Requesters. April 2008. 38 pages.

This requested report examines the status of broadcast stations in transitioning to digital, the extent to which broadcast stations are encountering issues, and the actions the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has taken to guide broadcasters in the digital transition. To address these issues, GAO conducted a Web-based survey of full-power television broadcast stations. GAO surveyed 1,682 stations and obtained completed questionnaires from 1,122 stations, for a response rate of 66.7 percent.


The opinions expressed in these publications do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Government

John B. Horrigan. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. Report. July 2008. 31 pages.
Some 55% of all adult Americans now have a high-speed Internet connection at home. The percentage of Americans with broadband at home has grown from 47% in early 2007. Poorer Americans saw no growth in broadband adoption in the past year while at the same time nearly one-third of broadband users pay more to get faster connections.


Aaron Smith and Lee Rainie. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. Report. June 15, 2008. 27 pages.
A record-breaking 46% of Americans have used the Internet, e-mail or cell phone text messaging to get news about the campaign, share their views and mobilize others. A significant number of voters are also using the Internet to gain access to campaign events and primary documents. Some 39% of online Americans have used the Internet to access "unfiltered" campaign materials, which includes video of candidate debates, speeches and announcements, as well as position papers and speech transcripts. Online activism using social media has also grown substantially since the first time the Pew Center probed this issue during the 2006 midterm elections.

Robert Pollin and Jeannette Wicks-Lim. Political Economy Research Institute. University of Massachusetts, Amherst. June 2008. 15 pages.
This report provides a snapshot of what kinds of jobs are needed to build a green economy in the United States. The authors focus on six key strategies for attacking global warming and highlight some of the major “green jobs” associated with each of these approaches: building retrofitting, mass transit, energy-efficient automobiles, wind power, solar power, and cellulosic biomass fuels. Millions of U.S. workers -- across a wide range of familiar occupations, states, and income and skill levels -- will all benefit from the project of defeating global warming and transforming the United States into a green economy.

Benjamin Lennett. New America Foundation. Wireless Future Program. Issue Brief #22. June 2008. 4 pages.
In 2004, the FCC initiated a proceeding to determine rules to allow the unlicensed operation of wireless communication devices in unused television band spectrum between channels 2 and 51. These vacant and unassigned television channels, known as the TV “white spaces,” would help make affordable wireless broadband in rural America a reality.


John B. Horrigan. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. Report. May 18, 2008. 42 pages.
Networked information gives consumers ready access to resources that can provide clues about product quality, terms of service, and other features. This report examines the process by which people come to purchase three types of products that, in different ways, are likely to be influenced by online information. This reports finds that the Internet plays an important role in how people conduct research for purchases, but it is just one among a variety of sources people use and usually not the key factor in final purchasing decisions.

Robert D. Atkinson, Daniel K. Correa and Julie A. Hedlund. Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF). May 2008. 108 pages.
It is hard to follow broadband telecommunications policy without hearing almost weekly that the United States ranks 15th out of 30 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations in broadband adoption. But it is much less apparent why the United States is behind. Indeed, relatively little work has been done to understand why some nations are ahead, and why some, like the United States, are lagging. By examining OECD nations through statistical analysis and in-depth case studies of nine nations, including the United States, this report identifies factors that have spurred broadband performance in other nations, presents key findings that government and the technology industry must recognize if they are to find the right course for the United States, and proposes key policy recommendations that will drive greater broadband performance.


Scott Wallsten. Technology Policy Institute. May 2008. 56 pages.
Discussions about broadband policy in the United States today inevitably begin by citing OECD estimates. Many analysts interpret the low ranking of the U.S. in broadband penetration relative to other OECD countries as meaning that U.S. broadband policy has been a failure. Whatever the relationship between rankings and policy, the OECD estimates are inaccurate and therefore misleading. In fact, broadband is nearly universally available in the U.S. and the U.S. compares favorably to other rich countries in terms of broadband penetration, speeds, and in broader measures of information and communications technology.

George S. Ford, Thomas M. Koutsky and Lawrence J. Spiwak. Phoenix Center for Advanced Legal and Economic Public Policy Studies. Policy Paper Number 33. May 2008. 27 pages.
In this paper, the authors assess the performance and efficiency of OECD countries with respect to broadband Internet subscription. Using the econometric technique of Stochastic Frontier Analysis, they estimate scores indicating the efficiency with which a country converts its economic and demographic endowments into broadband subscriptions. With very few exceptions, they find that broadband subscription in OECD countries is consistent with those endowments -- about two thirds of OECD countries have an efficiency rate of 95% or better. Significantly, the United States has an efficiency index of 96.7%, which is slightly higher than Japan (96.3%) and Korea (95.8%). Consistent with earlier research, they find that economic and demographic endowments explain nearly all of the variation in broadband subscriptions (91%).

Scott Wallsten. Technology Policy Institute. April 2008. 20 pages.
The United States now spends around $7 billion on universal service programs -- subsidies intended to ensure that the entire country has access to telecommunications services. Most of this money supports telecommunications service in “high cost” (primarily rural) areas, and the High Cost fund is growing quickly. In response to this growth, policymakers are considering using reverse auctions, or bids for the minimum subsidy, as a way to reduce expenditures. While the U.S. has not yet distributed funds for universal service programs using reverse auctions, the method has been used widely.

Previous issues of Information Technologies – Documents on the Web are available at:


Progress & Freedom Foundation, July 17, 2008

Debates about the state of the media marketplace continue to garner interest in Washington. Many policymakers, regulators, and consumer groups bemoan the supposed lack of “localism,” ownership concentration and an absence of quality programming as a rationale to further regulate in the media sector.
The report shows that, contrary to what some media critics believe, there are more media choice, competition, and diversity than ever before. The report offers a comprehensive look at a variety of media sectors such as audio, video and print, providing policymakers with a snapshot of the media sector.

Project for Excellence in Journalism, July 21, 2008

Despite an image of decline, more people today in more places read the content produced in the newsrooms of American daily newspapers than at any time in years. But revenues are tumbling. The editors expect the financial picture only to worsen, and they have little confidence that they know what their papers will look like in five years.


mercredi 30 juillet 2008

Encyclopedie Larousse

Encyclopedie Larousse

Une nouvelle encyclopédie contributive, sur le modèle de Wikipedia.
150000 articles mis gratuitement à disposition du public.
Les internautes peuvent aussi rédiger des articles dans un espace personnel: ces contenus ne peuvent être modifiés que par l'auteur lui-même ou par un modérateur en cas d'abus .
Ceci fournira à Larousse de nouveaux rédacteurs spécialisés.


mercredi 18 juin 2008

Paris, capitale de la gouvernance d’Internet

A partir du 20 juin 2008, Paris accueille la Semaine de l'Internet Mondial. Différentes réunions privées et publiques sont organisées autour des questions de l’Internet et de sa gouvernance. Sous les auspices de l’Icann, de l’Isoc, de l’Afnic ou d’autres, elles sont ouvertes à tous ceux qui souhaitent mieux comprendre les enjeux, participer aux débats en cours ou émettre de nouvelles idées. D’accord - ou pas - avec les organisations qui se réunissent à Paris, en accord - ou en désaccord - avec les autres participants qu’ils soient des utilisateurs, des fournisseurs, de la société civile, des pouvoir publics, du secteur privé ou de la communauté technique, venez écouter, participer à l’une ou l’autre de ces réunions.


La septième édition d’Egeni, organisée par Isoc France, et dont Sociétés de l’information est partenaire, se tient à Paris le 20 juin 2008, au Méridien Montparnasse sur le thème : « Internet 2020 ».

Trois grands débats rythment cette journée de rencontres :

  • Internet et l’Europe : vers un FGI Europe ?
    A la veille de la présidence de l’Union Européenne par la France : débat sur le rôle de l’Europe dans la gouvernance de l’Internet entre grands témoins et responsables politique.
  • Le futur de l’Internet et l’internet du futur.
    Des experts confrontent leurs visions à celles de grands témoins.
  • Les utilisateurs au cœur de l’Internet.
    Des responsables politiques et d’organisations de la gouvernance de l’Internet dialoguent avec les représentants des utilisateurs du réseau.


L’Icann prend le relais du 21 au 27 juin ; sa 32ème réunion internationale se tient pour la première fois en France. Les hôtes français sont nombreux et regroupés au sein de l’Agifem : l’Afnic, le W3C, Renater, Namebay, Internet fr, Indom, EuroDNS, French connexion, Amen et Isoc France avec le soutien de la Mairie de Paris, du ministère de l'Economie, des finances et de l'emploi, du ministère des Affaires étrangères, de France Télécom et du Toit de la Grande Arche avec le Musée de l’informatique et seront rejoints par d’autres, sponsors et partenaires.

Les conférences de l’Icann se tiennent trois fois par an donnent lieu à de multiples réunions – le plus souvent ouvertes – regroupant des participants soit autour de thèmes communs soit pour leur appartenance à un groupe, ou à une constituante.

Pour cette édition, les sujets principaux, qui vont sans doute évoluer dans les semaines qui viennent, sont :

  • La transition et l’évolution de l’Icann à la fin du JPA (Join Project Agreement) entre l’Icann et le DoC (Département du Commerce américain),
  • Les nouveaux gTLDs – Quand, comment, combien… ?
  • Les IDNs (noms de domaine internationalisés) pour les ccTLDs et les gTLDs,
  • Les adresses du protocole Internet, vers la fin de la distribution d’IP version 4 et la montée en puissance d’IP version 6.

Une réunion particulière retient notre attention, celle d’EuRalo – pour European Regional At-Large organization – qui regroupe des structures nationales représentant des utilisateurs individuels comme Isoc France et d’autres chapitres européens de l’Isoc, Terre des femmes e.V. et peut-être bientôt France At-Large. La structure est ouverte à d’autres organisations qui souhaiteraient participer plus directement et sur le long terme aux débats de l’Icann.
Ce sera la première réunion d’EuRalo depuis sa formation. Elle devrait être l’occasion d’un large échange de vue des Européens sur les questions liées à la gestion technique des noms de domaine et des adresses IP.


L’Isoc organise différentes réunions, notamment celle des représentants des chapitres présents à Paris ou celle du Conseil d’Administration d’Isoc Monde.

Juin 2008 est l’occasion de faire prendre conscience à de nombreuses personnes de l’importance du mot d’ordre de l’Isoc : Internet pour tous et Internet par tous !

Sébastien Bachollet – président Isoc France


Stockage virtuel sur GMAIL


Votre espace GMAIL peutêtre transformé en disque virtuel jusqu'à 6 Go, gérable comme un FTP

Procurez-vous le plug-in gratuit GSPACE, valable pour Windows, Mac, OS et Linux

" "

Cliquez sur "Ajouter à Firefox", "Installer maintenant"

Redémarrez Firefox, Deroulez le menu Outils> Gspace : la console de gestion de fichiers apparait (à gauche : disque dur; à droite , disque virtuel.

Saisissez vore adresse Gmail et son mot de passe. Puis "Add", puis "Fermer"

"Manage Accounts" puis "Login"

La connexion vous permet de gérer "Upload" et "Download" comme avec un serveur FTP.

Vous pouvez échanger vos données avec vos amis.

Classement et stockage de l'information

vendredi 13 juin 2008



Un outil de carte mentale: FreeMind - free mind mapping software

FreeMind is a premier free mind-mapping ( software written in Java. The recent development has hopefully turned it into high productivity tool. We are proud that the operation and navigation of FreeMind is faster than that of MindManager because of one-click "fold / unfold" and "follow link" operations.

So you want to write a completely new metaphysics? Why don't you use FreeMind? You have a tool at hand that remarkably resembles the tray slips of Robert Pirsig, described in his sequel to Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance called Lila. Do you want to refactor your essays in a similar way you would refactor software? Or do you want to keep personal knowledge base, which is easy to manage? Why don't you try FreeMind? Do you want to prioritize, know where you are, where you've been and where you are heading, as Stephen Covey would advise you? Have you tried FreeMind to keep track of all the things that are needed for that?

FreeMind documentation


Stupidity (also called fatuity) is the property a person, action or belief instantiates by virtue of having or being indicative of low intelligence

Stupidity (2003)Directed by Albert Nerenberg. With George W. Bush, Noam Chomsky, John Cleese. An exploration into the nature of stupidity in Western society and its history ...

"Stupidity "d'Avital Ronell


Qu'est-ce que la bêtise ? Où commence-t-elle ? Où s'arrête-t-elle ? Est-elle l'autre de l'intelligence - ou les confins de celle-ci ? Est-elle la négation de la raison - ou le seuil qui y mène ? C'est à toutes ces questions que tente de répondre, dans cet essai stimulant, la philosophe Avital Ronell, en revisitant les poètes et les écrivains que la bêtise fascina et qui ne sortirent pas toujours indemnes de cette attraction souvent réciproque - Barthes, Hölderlin, Flaubert, Kafka, Musil, Michaux, Pynchon - mais aussi les philosophes qui, parfois, crurent s'en détourner alors qu'ils ne faisaient que mieux l'embrasser - Kant, Hegel, Heidegger. Mais au-delà de la littérature et de la philosophie, Avital Ronell montre que la définition de la bêtise est d'abord une question politique, une marque de distinction et de ségrégation sociale, qui permet d'exclure des groupes et des individus de leur participation à la vie de la cité - et de conforter les autres dans la maîtrise et la possession des critères définissant l'intelligence et l'octroi des pouvoirs et des privilèges qui s'y rattachent indéfectiblement.

Voir aussi Les decisions absurdes

mercredi 11 juin 2008


Prochaine conférence-débat de TI France « Corruption et fraude : quelles sont les expériences et les perceptions des entreprises françaises ? »

Lundi 16 juin à 18h00Accueil à partir de 17h30

ENA, Amphithéâtre Parodi 2 avenue de l’Observatoire, 75 006 Paris.

Participation gratuite, inscription obligatoire

Le cabinet Ernst & Young a publié le 14 mai la 10ème édition de son enquête mondiale sur la fraude et la corruption en entreprise. Cette étude met en lumière une étonnante singularité française sur plusieurs des points abordés. Pour quelles raisons nos entreprises se déclarent-elles moins confrontées à la corruption que celles des entreprises des autres pays, y compris de l’Europe de l’Ouest ? Pourquoi leurs analyses différent-elles par rapport au reste du monde sur les conséquences de la fraude et de la corruption en entreprise ainsi que sur les meilleurs moyens de gérer ces risques ? Afin d’apporter un éclairage sur ces questions, Transparence-International (France) a invité Jean-Michel Arlandis, associé en charge du département Fraud Investigation and Dispute Services chez Ernst & Young, à venir présenter à ses membres et partenaires les résultats détaillés de cette enquête.

Programme :

- Introduction par Daniel Lebègue, président de TI France

- Présentation du rapport par Jean-Michel Arlandis, associé en charge du département Fraud Investigation and Dispute Services chez Ernst & Young

- Débat avec la salle

Cette conférence nous donnera également l’occasion de faire le point sur les avancées de la prévention de la corruption dans les entreprises au moment où Transparency International rendra public son 4ème rapport évaluant, un peu plus de 10 ans après son entrée en vigueur, la mise en œuvre de la convention de l’OCDE. Adoptée en 1997, celle-ci fut la première à incriminer la corruption active d’agents publics étrangers dans le commerce international.

Participation gratuite, inscription obligatoire. Vous trouverez ci-joint le bulletin d’inscription. Nous attirons votre attention sur le fait que le nombre de places est limité. Les inscriptions seront enregistrées puis confirmées par ordre de réception.

N’hésitez pas à faire suivre cette invitation à toute personne intéressée !

Transparence-International (France)

2bis rue de Villiers, 92 300 Levallois-Perret

Tel/Fax : +33 (0)1 47 58 82 08

e-mail :

site internet :

Transparence-International France est la section française de Transparency International (TI), la principale organisation de la société civile qui se consacre à la lutte contre la corruption. TI, qui comprend 80 sections nationales de par le monde, a son secrétariat international basé à Berlin en Allemagne.

Voir aussi


Ethique en affaires internationales

Gouvernance d'entreprise

Intelligence économique

mercredi 4 juin 2008

Réputation, Rumeur et désinformation


L'internet, par l'intermédiaire du mail, des forums, des listes de diffusions et du web, permet de diffuser une masse phénomale d'information, instantanément et partout dans le monde. Problème : la validité. Comment vérifier les sources, ne pas être victime d'une rumeur et voir sa réputation menacée ? Difficile dans la mesure où la désinformation et la rumeur, au-delà du simple canular, font maintenant partie intégrante de la
guerre économique. Avec le net, la rumeur, vieille comme le monde, trouve un nouveau support très puissant.
Livres et Publications
La rumeur
Desinformation et manipulations
e-Reputation : la réputation sur internet
Rumeur et désinformation spécifiques à l'internet (faux virus et canulars...)
Légendes urbaines
Cas pratiques :
Israël/Palestine, Charles Enderlin, Dominique Baudis, Thierry Meyssan, Suicides de 147 ados japonais...
Posted by Picasa
Posted by Picasa

jeudi 29 mai 2008


Carrefour logique ou simple argument rhétorique.
Conformiste, donc confortable. Dangereuse?
Comment apparait-elle? Dans quels domaines d'idées reçues?
Pourquoi et comment l'éviter?
Un panorama de pensées uniques

lundi 26 mai 2008

L'encyclopedie Brockhaus sur Internet

Source: ambassade Allemagne à Paris

14 février 2008 - L'avenir de l'encyclopédie réside-t-il dans Internet ? Le célèbre éditeur allemand Brockhaus, maison d'édition de la célèbre encyclopédie éponyme, le croit. Incarnation du savoir et bible de la bourgeoisie cultivée depuis 200 ans en Allemagne, il vient d'annoncer qu'il ne publierait pas de 22ème édition de sa célèbre encyclopédie en 30 volumes en version papier. Face à l'évolution du marché, il modernise sa stratégie : fini le papier, place à Internet. Le 15 avril prochain, l'encyclopédie Brockhaus deviendra "Brockhaus en ligne " ("Brockhaus online"), un portail encyclopédique gratuit, offrant des informations pertinentes et fiables dans tous les domaines du savoir.

L'éditeur explique qu'il "réagit à l'évolution du marché des dictionnaires classiques sur papier". En 2007, Brockhaus n'a pas atteint ses objectifs en termes de chiffre d'affaires, tout particulièrement dans le segment des encyclopédies généralistes. De plus, "toutes les études de marché montrent sans ambiguïté que les clients vont à l'avenir principalement rechercher les informations spécialisées en ligne". "Au flot d'informations de plus en plus confus que charrie l'Internet", Brockhaus veut donc "oppos[er] un portail de la connaissance qui sera un symbole de pertinence, de justesse et de sécurité", affirme Marion Winkenbach, responsable du développement de la marque Brockhaus.

Le futur portail "Brockhaus online" comprendra non seulement la célèbre encyclopédie, régulièrement actualisée, mais aussi d'autres dictionnaires et lexiques. Il sera financé par la publicité. Brockhaus, qui n'entend pas pour autant renoncer à la publication de livres sur papier, projette, en outre, de créer d'ici à l'automne un portail spécialement destiné aux élèves et à leurs professeurs. Gratuit et sans publicité, il doit leur donner accès à des informations sûres depuis l'enceinte de la salle de classe.