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mercredi 15 juillet 2009

Information Technologies – Documents on the Web – June 2009


TELECOMMUNICATIONS: Preliminary Observations about Consumer Satisfaction and Problems with Wireless Phone Service and FCC’s Efforts to Assist Consumers with Complaints
Mark Goldstein, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Testimony before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. June 17, 2009. 22 pages.

The use of wireless phone service in the United States has risen dramatically over the last 20 years, with an estimated 270 million subscribers as of December 2008. Concerns have been raised in recent years about the quality of this service, including specific concerns about billing and carriers’ contract terms, such as fees charged for terminating service before the end of a contract period. This testimony provides preliminary information on consumers’ current satisfaction with wireless phone service and problems consumers have experienced with this service, and FCC’s efforts to assist wireless consumers with complaints.

Access to Broadband Networks: The Net Neutrality Debate
Angele A. Gilroy. Congressional Research Service (CRS). June 1, 2009. 12 pages.

As congressional policymakers continue to debate telecommunications reform, a major point of contention is the question of whether action is needed to ensure unfettered access to the Internet. The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and non-discriminatory treatment, is referred to as net neutrality. There is no single accepted definition of net neutrality. Most agree, however, that any such definition should include the general principles that owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet should not control how consumers lawfully use that network, and they should not be able to discriminate against content provider access to that network.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC). May 22, 2009. 83 pages.

For many Americans, a world without broadband is unimaginable. But we have not succeeded in bringing broadband to everyone. For years, large parts of rural America have languished on the sidelines of the digital revolution. Rural governments and businesses are missing opportunities to function more efficiently and effectively. Shortly after President Obama took office, his administration began to play an important leadership role in the effort to expand broadband penetration throughout the nation. The solutions for rural broadband should reflect consideration of the full range of technological options available, and should not elevate the need for short-term progress over longer-term objectives.

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM: Significant Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Widely Used Capabilities
Cristina T. Chaplain, Director, Acquisition and Sourcing Management. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives. May 7, 2009. 15 pages.

The Global Positioning System (GPS), which provides position, navigation, and timing data to users worldwide, has become essential to U.S. national security and a key tool in an expanding array of public service and commercial applications at home and abroad. The United States provides GPS data free of charge. The Air Force, which is responsible for GPS acquisition, is in the process of modernizing GPS. In light of the importance of GPS, the modernization effort, and international efforts to develop new systems, GAO was asked to undertake a broad review of GPS. Specifically, GAO assessed progress in acquiring GPS satellites, acquiring the ground control and user equipment necessary to leverage GPS satellite capabilities, and evaluated coordination among federal agencies and other organizations to ensure GPS missions can be accomplished.

Information Security: Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities Place Federal Systems at Risk
Gregory C. Wilshusen, Director, Information Security Issues. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Testimony before the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives. May 5, 2009. 21 pages.
The need for a vigilant approach to information security has been demonstrated by the pervasive and sustained computerbased (cyber) attacks against the United States and others that continue to pose a potentially devastating impact to systems and the operations and critical infrastructures that they support. GAO was asked to describe cyber threats to federal information systems and cyberbased critical infrastructures and control deficiencies that make these systems and infrastructures vulnerable to those threats.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS: Broadband Deployment Plan Should Include Performance Goals and Measures to Guide Federal Investment
Government Accountability Office (GAO). Report to the Chairman, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives. May 2009. 44 pages.

The United States ranks 15th among the 30 democratic nations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on one measure of broadband (i.e., high-speed Internet) subscribership. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has regulatory authority over broadband, and several federal programs fund broadband deployment. This congressionally requested report discusses the federal broadband deployment policy, principal federal programs, and stakeholders’ views of those programs; how the policies of OECD nations with higher subscribership rates compare with U.S. policy; and actions the states have taken to encourage broadband deployment.

CybeRspACe polICy RevIew: Assuring a Trusted and Resilient Information and Communications Infrastructure
Executive Office of the President. April 17, 2009. 76 pages.

The architecture of the Nation’s digital infrastructure, based largely upon the Internet, is not secure or resilient. Without major advances in the security of these systems or significant change in how they are constructed or operated, it is doubtful that the United States can protect itself from the growing threat of cybercrime and state-sponsored intrusions and operations. The U.S. digital infrastructure has already suffered intrusions that have allowed criminals to steal hundreds of millions of dollars and nation-states and other entities to steal intellectual property and sensitive military information. Other intrusions threaten to damage portions of U.S. critical infrastructure. These and other risks have the potential to undermine the Nation’s confidence in the information systems that underlie economic and national security interests.

Beyond Voice: Mapping the Mobile Marketplace
Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Staff Report. April 2009. 54 pages.

Mobile devices, once associated only with voice telephone service, have become the launching pads for new data-driven technologies and services. Today, consumers use their mobile devices for myriad purposes including “chatting” through text messaging, taking pictures, browsing the Web, making purchases, listening to music, viewing videos, playing games across cyberspace, and keeping track of friends and relatives. This report explores these new developments and their impact on mobile commerce (“M-commerce”).

Broadband Infrastructure Programs in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
Lennard G. Kruger. Congressional Research Service (CRS). March 20, 2009. 14 pages.

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA, P.L. 111-5) provides $7.2 billion primarily for broadband grant programs to be administered by two separate agencies: the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) of the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Rural Utilities Service (RUS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The unprecedented scale and scope of the ARRA broadband programs, coupled with the short time frame for awarding grants, presents daunting challenges with respect to program implementation as well as Congressional oversight. Congress is closely monitoring how equitably and effectively broadband grants are allocated among states and the various stakeholders, and to what extent the programs fulfill the goals of short term job creation and the longer term economic benefits anticipated from improved broadband availability, access, and adoption.

Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs
Lennard G. Kruger and Angele A. Gilroy. Congressional Research Service (CRS). March 19, 2009. 30 pages.

It is expected that the Obama Administration will ultimately develop a national broadband policy or strategy that will seek to reduce or eliminate the "digital divide" with respect to broadband. It is likely that elements of a national broadband policy, in tandem with broadband investment measures in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, will significantly shape and expand federal policies and programs to promote broadband deployment and adoption. A key issue is how to strike a balance between providing federal assistance for unserved and underserved areas where the private sector may not be providing acceptable levels of broadband service, while at the same time minimizing any deleterious effects that government intervention in the marketplace may have on competition and private sector investment.

Net Neutrality: Background and Issues
Angele A. Gilroy. Congressional Research Service (CRS). March 19, 2009. 9 pages.

Concern over whether it is necessary to take steps to ensure access to the Internet for content, services, and applications providers, as well as consumers, and if so, what these should be, is a major focus in the debate over telecommunications reform. Some policymakers contend that more specific regulatory guidelines may be necessary to protect the marketplace from potential abuses which could threaten the net neutrality concept. Others contend that existing laws and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) policies are sufficient to deal with potential anti-competitive behavior and that such regulations would have negative effects on the expansion and future development of the Internet. A consensus on this issue has not yet formed, and the 111th Congress, to date, has not introduced stand-alone legislation to address this issue.

Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative:
Legal Authorities and Policy Considerations
John Rollins and Anna C. Henning. Congressional Research Service (CRS). March 10, 2009. 21 pages.

Federal agencies report increasing cyber-intrusions into government computer networks, perpetrated by a range of known and unknown actors. In response, the President, legislators, experts, and others have characterized cybersecurity as a pressing national security issue. Like other national security challenges in the post-9/11 era, the cyber threat is multi-faceted and lacks clearly delineated boundaries. Some cyber attackers operate through foreign nations military or intelligence-gathering operations, whereas others have connections to terrorist groups or operate as individuals. Some cyber threats might be viewed as international or domestic criminal enterprises.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS: Long-Term Strategic Vision Would Help Ensure Targeting of E-rate Funds to Highest-Priority Uses
Government Accountability Office (GAO). Report to Congressional Requesters. March 2009. 83 pages.

The Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) Schools and Libraries Universal Service Support Mechanism -- also known as the E-rate program -- is a significant source of federal funding for information technology for schools and libraries, providing about $2 billion a year. As requested, GAO assessed issues related to the E-rate program’s long-term goals, including key trends in the demand for and use of E-rate funding and the implications of these trends; the rate of program participation, participants’ views on requirements, and FCC’s actions to facilitate participation; and FCC’s performance goals and measures for the program and how they compare to key characteristics of successful goals and measures.


The opinions expressed in these publications do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Government

The SAFETY Act: Obama Cyber Plans and the Private Sector
Jena Baker McNeill. The Heritage Foundation. WebMemo No. 2490. June 17, 2009. 2 pages.

On May 29, the Obama Administration released the results of its 60-day cyber review. The review correctly emphasized the vital role of the private sector in any future national cybersecurity strategy. Involving the private sector effectively, however, will require a liability protection regime -- one that encourages industry to invest in cybertechnologies that protect against acts of cyberterrorism.

Home Broadband Adoption 2009
John Horrigan. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. June 17, 2009. 50 pages.

This report shows 63% of adult Americans now have broadband Internet connections at home, a 15% increases from a year earlier. April’s level of high-speed adoption represents a significant jump from figures gathered since the end of 2007 (54%). The growth in home broadband adoption occurred even though survey respondents reported paying more for broadband compared to May 2008. Last year, the average monthly bill for broadband Internet service at home was $34.50, a figure that stands at $39.00 in April 2009.

The State of Music Online: Ten Years After Napster
Mary Madden. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. June 15, 2009. 18 pages.

In the decade since Napster’s launch, selling recorded music has become as much of an art as making the music itself. The music industry has been on the front lines of the battle to convert freeloaders into paying customers, and their efforts have been watched closely by other digitized industries -- newspapers, book publishing and Hollywood among them.

The Confluence of Cyber Crime and Terrorism
Steven P. Bucci. The Heritage Foundation. Heritage Lecture No. 1123. June 12, 2009. 7 pages.

Today the world faces a wide array of cyber threats. The majority of these threats are aimed at the Western democracies and the Western-leaning countries of other regions. The reason for this is simple: They are ripe targets. These countries are either highly dependent, almost completely in some cases, on cyber means for nearly every significant societal interaction or are racing toward that goal.

Wireless Taxation, Economic Growth and Economic Opportunity
Robert D. Atkinson. Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF). June 9, 2009. 7 pages.

In a testimony before the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Commercial and Administrative Law, the author discusses why discriminatory taxes on wireless services have a negative impact on economic growth and innovation. According to him, at minimum, any given tax should not significantly change consumer behavior, be borne predominately by low-income consumers or households, and inhibit economic growth -- and a discriminatory tax on wireless services would violate all three principles.

An Economic Perspective on a U.S. National Broadband Plan
Robert Hahn and Scott Wallsten. Technology Policy Institute. June 8, 2009. 23 pages.

This paper responds to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission’s April 2009 request for guidance in designing a national broadband plan. The authors argue that the U.S. market for Internet services is working well overall, as evidenced by nearly ubiquitous coverage, rapid adoption, large investments, and increasing speeds. Still, it is not working well for all people in all places, and the authors offer a framework consisting of nine recommendations for considering policies intended to mitigate those issues.

KnowPrivacy: The Current State of Web Privacy, Data Collection, and Information Sharing University of California, Berkeley, School of Information. June 1, 2009. 44 pages.

Online privacy and behavioral profiling are of growing concern among both consumers and government officials. In this report, the authors examine both the data handling practices of popular websites and the concerns of consumers in an effort to identify problematic practices. They conclude by offering potential solutions to realign privacy practices with consumers’ expectations.

Thomas M. Lenard and Lawrence J. White. Technology Policy Institute. June 2009. 57 pages.
This paper evaluates the structure and governance of ICANN. In particular, it reviews ICANN’s structure and functions, and also the structures of a number of other organizations that perform a roughly comparable range of private-sector and quasi-governmental coordination and standard-setting functions, to explore what might be applicable to ICANN.

Cyberbullying Legislation: Why Education is Preferable to Regulation
Berin Szoka and Adam Thierer. The Progress & Freedom Foundation (PFF). Progress on Point Volume 16, Issue 12. June 2009. 26 pages.

Cyberbullying is a rising online safety concern. Evidence suggests that cyberbullying is on the rise and can have profoundly damaging consequences for children. In the wake of a handful of high-profile cyberbullying incidents that resulted in teen suicides, some state lawmakers began floating legislation to address the issue. More recently, two very different federal approaches have been proposed. One approach is focused on the creation of a new federal felony to punish cyberbullying, which would include fines and jail time for violators. The other legislative approach is education-based and would create an Internet safety education grant program to address the issue in schools and communities.

COPPA 2.0: The New Battle over Privacy, Age Verification, Online Safety & Free Speech Berin Szoka and Adam Thierer. The Progress & Freedom Foundation (PFF). Progress on Point Volume 16, Issue 11. June 2009. 36 pages.

Online privacy, child safety, free speech and anonymity are on a collision course. The 1998 Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) already mandates certain online privacy protections for children under 13, but many advocate expanding online privacy protections for both adolescents and adults. Furthermore, efforts continue at both the federal and state levels to institute new regulations, such as age verification mandates, aimed at ensuring the safety of children online. There is an inherent tension between these objectives: attempts to achieve perfectly “safe” online environments will likely require the surrender of some privacy and speech rights, including the right to speak anonymously.

Online Classifieds
Sydney Jones. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. May 22, 2009. 14 pages.

The number of online adults who have used online classified ads has more than doubled in the past four years. Almost half (49%) of Internet users say they have ever used online classified sites, compared with 22% of online adults who had done so in 2005. On any given day about a tenth of Internet users (9%) visit online classified sites, up from 4% in 2005. These findings highlight the growing importance of such sites to Internet users and reflect the changes in the audience for classified ads -- both those who place them and those who make purchases -- that have devastated a key revenue source for traditional newspapers.

Social Networking and National Security: How to Harness Web 2.0 to Protect the Country James Jay Carafano. The Heritage Foundation. Backgrounder No. #2273. May 18, 2009. 6 pages.

The growth of Web 2.0, its expanding global reach, and potential new technologies to further its use and adoption argue that today's social networking is a change in the form of human communication that cannot be ignored. Online social networks have impacted every field of human endeavor from education to health care. National security is no exception.

Normalizing Broadband Connections
George S. Ford. Phoenix Center for Advanced Legal and Economic Public Policy Studies. Perspectives # 09-01. May 12, 2009. 9 pages.

As governments around the world, including the United States, place increased emphasis on the deployment and adoption of broadband technology, it becomes increasingly important that countries have appropriate and correct benchmarks by which to measure progress. The most-cited international statistics comparing broadband adoption are the broadband subscriptions per capita “rankings” published twice a year by the OECD. In this document, the author explains the fundamental flaws in the OECD’s approach -- namely that measuring fixed broadband subscriptions per capita is not a “penetration” measurement because fixed broadband is purchased on a per-location, not per-person basis -- and outlines one possible method of comparing broadband adoption among industrialized economies: the number of broadband connections per telephone lines.

Federal Government Policy on the Use of Persistent Internet Cookies: Time for Change or More of the Same? Daniel Castro. Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF). May 2009. 13 pages.

In the digital world a decade is a long time, yet federal government websites are using the same restrictive policy on “cookies“ (small data files stored on a user’s computer) established during the Clinton administration. In this report, the author looks at the origins of this federal government policy, the current uses of persistent cookies, and proposes a new framework for the use of persistent cookies on government websites given current trends in e-government. The goal, he argues, should be to loosen the restrictions on the use of cookies and balance privacy against other equally important goals such as usability, accessibility and transparency.

Thomas M. Lenard and Paul H. Rubin. Technology Policy Institute. May 2009. 56 pages.

The commercial use of information on the Internet has produced substantial benefits for consumers. But, as the use of information online has increased, so have concerns about privacy. This paper discusses how the use of individuals’ information for commercial purposes affects consumers, and the implications of restricting information availability in the interest of privacy.

Getting Students More Learning Time Online: Distance Education in Support of Expanded Learning Time in K-12 Schools
Cathy Cavanaugh. Center for American Progress. May 2009. 28 pages.

Complementary changes within the K-12 education community are sweeping schools in the form of one-to-one computing, online learning for students and teachers, and differentiated instruction. Students can choose from among schools, courses, and powerful educational tools and resources that never before existed. As a result, education for many students today bears little resemblance to their parents’ education. This transformation is a positive change when students are connected with the tools and opportunities that meet their individual needs.

A Historic Opportunity: Wedding Health Information Technology to Care Delivery Innovation and Provider Payment Reform
Todd Park and Peter Basch. Center for American Progress. May 2009. 29 pages.

The $19 billion health information technology investment authorized under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act’s HITECH program presents a landmark opportunity to catalyze improvement of the U.S. health care system. This key piece of President Obama’s policy agenda encourages doctors and hospitals to embrace health IT solutions in order to strengthen and modernize the infrastructure upon which the health care system runs. This critical health IT investment program will fail, however, if it is treated as a pure technology implementation program.

Nicholas Bloom, Luis Garicano, Raffaella Sadun and John Van Reenen. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 14975. May 2009. 58 pages.

Empirical studies on information communication technologies (ICT) typically aggregate the "information" and "communication" components together. The authors show theoretically and empirically that these have very different effects on the empowerment of employees, and by extension on wage inequality. Using an original dataset of firms in the US and seven European countries, they study the impact of ICT on worker autonomy, plant manager autonomy and spans of control. They find that better information technologies (Enterprise Resource Planning for plant managers and CAD/CAM for production workers) are associated with more autonomy and a wider span of control. By contrast, communication technologies (like data networks) decrease autonomy for both workers and plant managers.).

The Internet's Role in Campaign 2008
Aaron Smith. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. April 15, 2009. 92 pages.

Some 74% of Internet users -- representing 55% of the entire adult population -- went online in 2008 to get involved in the political process or to get news and information about the election. This marks the first time that a Pew Internet & American Life Project survey has found that more than half of the voting-age population used the Internet to get involved in the political process during an election year. Several online activities rose to prominence in 2008. In particular, Americans were eager to share their views on the race with others and to take part in the online debate on social media sites such as blogs and social networking sites.

Smart Grid, Smart Broadband, Smart Infrastructure: Melding Federal Stimulus Programs to Ensure More Bang for the Buck
Peter Swire. Center for American Progress. April 2009. 16 pages.
To use the economic stimulus funding in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 far more efficiently to achieve a diverse set of closely related goals, construction of the electricity grid and the broadband network should go hand in hand, and be combined with other parts of the Act, such as health care information technology, education reform, weatherization initiatives, and future policy initiatives to create a nationwide smart infrastructure.

ICANN’s Economic Reports: Finding the Missing Pieces to the Puzzle
Michael D. Palage. The Progress & Freedom Foundation (PFF). Progress Snapshot Volume 5, Issue 4. April 2009. 10 pages.
The global business community and a number of national governments have expressed significant concerns about ICANN’s proposal for processing large numbers of applications for new Top Level Domains (gTLDs) such as .BLOG, .NYC or .WEB. The community has been especially concerned about the economic reports used by ICANN to justify its decisions as to whether, and how, to implement applications for new gTLDs. Among the greatest sources of concern has been the failure of ICANN staff to issue a complete public response to the ICANN Board’s October 2006 demand that ICANN Staff commission an independent study by a reputable economic consulting firm or organization to deliver findings on economic questions relating to the domain registration market.

The Mobile Difference
John Horrigan. The Pew Internet & American Life Project. March 25, 2009. 129 pages.
Some 39% of Americans have positive and improving attitudes about their mobile communication devices, which in turn draws them further into engagement with digital resources -- on both wireless and wireline platforms. Mobile connectivity is now a powerful differentiator among technology users. Those who plug into the information and communications world while on-the-go are notably more active in many facets of digital life than those who use wires to jack into the Internet and the 14% of Americans who are off the grid entirely.

The First Annual New Millennium Research Council Survey on Consumers, Cell Phones and the Economy
New Millennium Research Council (NMRC). March 2009. 46 pages.
Deepening concerns about the recession already have caused millions of U.S. consumers to cut back on their cell phone spending and millions more are poised to join their ranks if the economic downturn continues as expected for another six months, according to this survey. The resulting shift in consumer habits is likely to come at the expense of contract-based cell phone service as more consumers seek to save money by using prepaid cell phones and cutting out cell phone “extras.”

Innovation and Cybersecurity Regulation
James A. Lewis. Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). March 2009. 3 pages.
The market has failed to secure cyberspace. A ten-year experiment in faith-based cybersecurity has proven this beyond question. A new Federal approach to cybersecurity will fail if it does not elicit actions that the private sector will not otherwise perform. Finding a new and more balanced approach will not be easy. The intellectual heritage of deregulation lives in assertions such as any regulation to improve security will hurt innovation. Innovation is a complex process, and simple statements about cause and effect deserve only skepticism.

Net Neutrality, Unbundling, and their Effects on International Investment in Next-Generation Networks
Scott J. Wallsten and Stephanie Hausladen. Technology Policy Institute. March 2009. 24 pages.

This paper examines the net neutrality debate in countries outside the U.S., particularly in the EU. Most appear to have endorsed the idea of net neutrality and believe that policies promoting unbundling -- mandatory network sharing -- will ensure neutral networks. The authors argue that unbundling may not necessarily affect incumbent incentives to prioritize certain traffic. Because unbundling can affect investment incentives, they use a new dataset to examine empirically the effects of unbundling on investment in new fiber networks in Europe. They find a significant negative correlation between the number of unbundled DSL connections per capita and the number of fiber connections.

Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3). U.S. Department of Justice. March 2009. 28 pages.

The 2008 Internet Crime Report is the eighth annual compilation of information on complaints received and referred by the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) to law enforcement or regulatory agencies for appropriate action. From January 1, 2008 - December 31, 2008, the IC3 website received 275,284 complaint submissions. This is a (33.1%) increase when compared to 2007 when 206,884 complaints were received. These filings were composed of complaints primarily related to fraudulent and non-fraudulent issues on the Internet.

The Rise of the Intranet Era: Media, Research and Policy in an Age of Communications Revolution
Sascha Meinrath and Victor Pickard. New America Foundation. February 20, 2009.

If the previous ten years were "The Internet Decade," then the next decade may be dubbed the "Age of the Intranet." This study explores the notion of a "community Intranet" -- an expanded network of networks spanning a neighborhood, municipality, or geographic region. By amplifying community interconnectedness, Intranets promise to enable new forms of political and democratic engagement that expand upon present day networks and models of cooperation. Intranets are often decentralized and ad-hoc, with no one entity owning the entire infrastructure or controlling expansion of or access to the infrastructure. These arrangements create new challenges for surveillance and command and control as well as new opportunities for participatory media and information dissemination.

Shane Greenstein and Ryan C. McDevitt. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 14758. February 2009. 64 pages.

How much economic value did the diffusion of broadband create? The authors provide benchmark estimates for 1999 to 2006. They observe $39 billion of total revenue in Internet access in 2006, with broadband accounting for $28 billion of this total. Depending on the estimate, households generated $20 to $22 billion of the broadband revenue. Approximately $8.3 to $10.6 billion was additional revenue created between 1999 and 2006. That replacement is associated with $4.8 to $6.7 billion in consumer surplus, which is not measured via Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

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